هندبوک مهندسی توربین گازی

Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook Contents Preface to the Fourth Edition xix Preface to the Third Edition xxiii Preface to the Second Edition xxvii Preface to the First Edition xxix Foreword to the First Edition xxxi About the Author xxxiii Part I Desهندبوک مهندسی توربین گازی|40216579|arshad100|هندبوک مهندسی توربین گازی,Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook,Preface to the Fourth Edition xix,Preface to the Third Edition xxiii,Preface to the Second Edition xxvii,Preface to the First Edition xxix,Foreword to the First Edition xxxi,About the Author xxxiii,Part I Design Theory and Practice
با سلام و درود خدمت خدمت شما پژوهشگر عزیز در این مطلب از سایت فایل با عنوان هندبوک مهندسی توربین گازی هم اکنون آماده دریافت می باشد برای مشاهده جزئیات فایل به ادامه مطلب مراجعه نمایید .

Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook

Contents

Preface to the Fourth Edition xix
Preface to the Third Edition xxiii
Preface to the Second Edition xxvii
Preface to the First Edition xxix
Foreword to the First Edition xxxi
About the Author xxxiii
Part I Design: Theory and Practice 1
1 An Overview of Gas Turbines 3
Gas Turbine Cycle in the Combined Cycle or Cogeneration Mode 3
Gas Turbine Performance 6
Gas Turbine Design Considerations 11
Categories of Gas Turbines 15
Frame Type Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines 16
Aircraft-Derivative Gas Turbines 30
Industrial-Type Gas Turbines 39
Small Gas Turbines 42
Vehicular Gas Turbines 44
Microturbines 50
Major Gas Turbine Components 51
Compressors 51
Regenerators/Recuperators 57
Fuel Type 59
Combustors 61
Environmental Effects 62
Turbine Expander Section 76
Radial-Inflow Turbine 76
Mixed-Flow Turbine 77
Axial-Flow Turbines 78
Materials 80
Coatings 83
Gas Turbine Heat Recovery 83
Supplementary Firing of Heat Recovery Systems 85
Instrumentation and Controls 87
vi Contents
2 Theoretical and Actual Cycle Analyses 89
The Brayton Cycle 89
Regeneration Effect 92
Increasing the Work Output of the Simple-Cycle Gas Turbine 95
Intercooling and Reheating Effects 95
Actual Cycle Analysis 98
The Simple Cycle 98
The Split-Shaft Simple Cycle 100
The Regenerative Cycle 101
The Inter-cooled Simple Cycle 102
The Reheat Cycle 103
The Inter-cooled Regenerative Reheat Cycle 105
The Steam Injection Cycle 105
The Evaporative Regenerative Cycle 109
The Brayton–Rankine Cycle 110
Summation of Cycle Analysis 113
A General Overview of Combined-Cycle Plants 114
Compressed Air Energy Storage Cycle 121
Power Augmentation 122
Inlet Cooling 122
Injection of Compressed Air Steam or Water 124
Inlet Cooling Techniques 124
Evaporative Cooling of the Turbine 124
Refrigerated Inlets for the Gas Turbines 125
Combination of Evaporative and Refrigerated Inlet Systems 127
Thermal Energy Storage Systems 128
Injection of Compressed Air Steam or Water for Increasing Power 128
Mid-Compressor Flashing of Water 128
Injection of Humidified and Heated Compressed Air 129
Combination of Evaporative Cooling and Steam Injection 131
Summation of the Power Augmentation Systems 132
Bibliography 137
3 Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics 139
Aerothermodynamics of Turbomachinery 139
Ideal Gas 140
Dry- and Wet-bulb Temperatures 144
Optical and Radiation Pyrometers 148
Ideal Gas Laws 149
Compressibility Effect 150
Aerothermal Equations 153
Continuity Equation 153
Momentum Equation 154
Energy Equation 156
Contents vii
Efficiencies 157
Adiabatic Thermal Efficiency 158
Polytropic Efficiency 161
Dimensional Analysis 163
Compressor Performance Characteristics 166
Turbine Performance Characteristics 167
Gas Turbine Performance Computation 167
Bibliography 176
4 Performance and Mechanical Standards 177
Major Variables for a Gas Turbine Application 177
Type of Application 177
Plant Location and Site Configuration 179
Plant Type 180
Gas Turbine Size and Efficiency 180
Type of Fuel 180
Enclosures 183
Plant Operation Mode: Base or Peaking 184
Start-Up Techniques 184
Performance Standards 184
ASME PTC 19.1: Test Uncertainty 185
ASME PTC 19.3: Part 3: Temperature Measurement
Instruments and Apparatus 185
ASME PTC 19.5: Flow Measurement Published 2004 186
PTC 19.10: Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses Part 10 187
ASME PTC 19.11: Steam and Water Sampling Conditioning
and Analysis in the Power Cycle 187
ASME PTC 19.23: Guidance Manual for Model Testing Published 1980 188
ASME PTC 46: Performance Test Code on Overall Plant Performance
Published January 1 1996 188
Object and Scope 188
Performance Test Code on Gas Turbines 190
ASME PTC 22 Published 2006 190
ASME Measurement of Exhaust Emissions from Stationary
Gas Turbine Engines B133.9 Published 1994 190
ASME PTC 36 Measurement of Industrial Sound (ASME B133.8)
Published 2004 191
Mechanical Parameters 191
ASME B 133.2 Basic Gas Turbines Published 1977
(Reaffirmed: 1997) 192
ASME B133.3 Procurement Standard for Gas Turbine Auxiliary
Equipment Published 1981 (Reaffirmed 1994) 192
ASME B133.4 Gas Turbine Control and Protection Systems
Published 1978 (Reaffirmed: 1997) 192
viii Contents
ASME B133.5 Procurement Standard for Gas Turbine Electrical
Equipment Published 1978 (Reaffirmed: 1994) 193
ASME B 133.7M Gas Turbine Fuels Published 1985
(Reaffirmed: 1992) 193
ASME B133.8 Gas Turbine Installation Sound Emissions
Published 1977 (Reaffirmed: 1989) 193
ASME B133.9 Measurement of Exhaust Emissions from
Stationary Gas Turbine Engines Published: 1994 193
API Std 616 Gas Turbines for the Petroleum Chemical and
Gas Industry Services Fourth Edition August 1998 194
API Std 613 Special Purpose Gear Units for Petroleum Chemical
and Gas Industry Services Fourth Edition June 1995 194
API Std 614 Lubrication Shaft-Sealing and Control-Oil Systems
and Auxiliaries for Petroleum Chemical and Gas Industry
Services Fourth Edition April 1999 194
API Std 618 Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum Chemical
and Gas Industry Services Fourth Edition June 1995 195
API Std 619 Rotary-Type Positive Displacement Compressors
for Petroleum Chemical and Gas Industry Services Third
Edition June 1997 195
ANSI/API Std 670 Vibration Axial-Position and
Bearing-Temperature Monitoring Systems Third Edition
November 1993 195
API Std 671 Special Purpose Couplings for Petroleum Chemical
and Gas Industry Services Third Edition October 1998 195
API Std 677 General-Purpose Gear Units for Petroleum
Chemical and Gas Industry Services Second Edition July 1997
(Reaffirmed: March 2000) 196
Application of the Mechanical Standards to the Gas Turbine 196
Gears 203
Lubrication Systems 205
Vibration Measurements 206
Specifications 208
5 Rotor Dynamics 215
Mathematical Analysis 215
Undamped Free System 217
Damped System 218
Forced Vibrations 222
Design Considerations 224
Application to Rotating Machines 226
Rigid Supports 226
Flexible Supports 228
Critical Speed Calculations for Rotor Bearing Systems 230
Contents ix
Electromechanical Systems and Analogies 232
Forces Acting on a Rotor-Bearing System 233
Rotor-Bearing System Instabilities 236
Self-Excited Instabilities 239
Campbell Diagram 244
Bibliography 250
Part II Major Components 251
6 Centrifugal Compressors 253
Centrifugal Compressor Components 254
Inlet Guide Vanes 260
Impeller 262
Inducer 264
Centrifugal Section of an Impeller 267
Causes of Slip in an Impeller 269
Stodola Slip Factor 272
Stanitz Slip Factor 273
Diffusers 274
Scroll or Volute 275
Centrifugal Compressor Performance 278
Rotor Losses 279
Stator Losses 281
Compressor Surge 283
Effects of Gas Composition 289
External Causes and Effects of Surge 290
Surge Detection and Control 291
Process Centrifugal Compressors 292
Compressor Configuration 295
Impeller Fabrication 298
Bibliography 299
7 Axial-Flow Compressors 303
Introduction 303
Blade and Cascade Nomenclature 306
Elementary Airfoil Theory 309
Laminar-Flow Airfoils 311
Energy Increase 313
Velocity Triangles 313
Degree of Reaction 315
Radial Equilibrium 319
Diffusion Factor 320
The Incidence Rule 321
The Deviation Rule 323
x Contents
Compressor Operation Characteristics 328
Compressor Surge 328
Compressor Choke 331
Compressor Stall 331
Individual Blade Stall 332
Rotating Stall 332
Stall Flutter 333
Compressor Performance Parameters 337
Performance Losses in an Axial-Flow Compressor 340
New Developments in Axial-Flow Compressors 342
Axial-Flow Compressor Research 344
Cascade Tests 345
Blade Profile 345
Compressor Blade Material 351
Acknowledgments 354
Bibliography 355
8 Radial-Inflow Turbines 357
Hydraulic Radial-Inflow Turbines 357
Radial-Inflow Turbines for Gas Applications 358
Turbine Configurations 361
Thermodynamic and Aerodynamic Theory 368
Turbine Design Considerations 374
Performance of a Radial-Inflow Turbine 376
Losses in a Radial-Inflow Turbine 380
Radial-Inflow Turbine Applications 381
Bibliography 383
9 Axial-Flow Turbines 385
Turbine Geometry 385
Thermodynamic and Aerodynamic Theory 387
Utilization Factor 391
Degree of Reaction 391
Work Factor 392
Velocity Diagrams 393
Zero-Exit Swirl Diagram 393
Impulse Diagram 394
Symmetrical Diagram 394
Impulse Turbine 394
Turbine Blade Cooling Concepts 401
Convection Cooling 405
Impingement Cooling 405
Film Cooling 405
Transpiration Cooling 405
Water/Steam Cooling 405
Contents xi
Turbine Blade Cooling Design 406
Convection and Impingement Cooling/Strut Insert Design 406
Film and Convection Cooling Design 406
Transpiration Cooling Design 408
Multiple Small-Hole Design 408
Water-Cooled Turbine Blades 410
Steam-Cooled Turbine Blades 412
Cooled-Turbine Aerodynamics 412
Turbine Losses 420
Bibliography 425
10 Combustors 427
Gas Turbine Combustors 427
Typical Combustor Arrangements 429
Can-Annular and Annular Combustors 429
Silo-Type Combustors 431
Combustion in Combustors 431
The Diffusion-Type Combustor 432
Air-Pollution Problems in a Diffusion Combustor 443
Smoke 443
Oxides of Nitrogen 443
NO
x Prevention 445
Diffusion Combustor Design 448
The Diffusion Combustor 448
Flame Stabilization 452
Combustion and Dilution 452
Film Cooling of the Liner 453
Fuel Atomization and Ignition 453
The Dry Low Emission Combustors 455
Primary 467
Lean–Lean 468
Premix Transfer 468
Piloted Premix 468
Premix 469
Tertiary Full-Speed No Load (FSNL) 469
Silo-Type Combustors 477
Operation of DLN/DLE Combustors 479
Catalytic Combustion and Combustors 481
Features of Catalytic Combustion 481
Catalytic Combustor Design 483
Preburner 484
Main Fuel Injector 484
Catalytic Reactor 484
Transition Pieces 487
xii Contents
Part III Materials Fuel Technology and Fuel Systems 491
11 Materials 493
General Metallurgical Behaviors in Gas Turbines 496
Creep and Rupture 496
Ductility and Fracture 497
Cyclic Fatigue 498
Thermal Fatigue 498
Corrosion 499
Gas Turbine Materials 503
Turbine Wheel Alloys 505
Compressor Blades 507
Forgings and Non-destructive Testing 508
Ceramics 508
Coatings 509
Shroud Coatings 513
Future Coatings 513
Bibliography 514
12 Fuels 515
Fuel Specifications 519
Fuel Properties 521
Liquid Fuels 521
Liquid Fuel Handling and Treatment 523
Heavy Fuels 531
Fuel Gas Handling and Treatment 535
Equipment for Removal of Particulates and Liquids from Fuel Gas Systems 540
Fuel Heating 542
Cleaning of Turbine Components 543
Hot Section Wash 544
Compressor Washing 545
Fuel Economics 546
Operating Experience 548
Heat Tracing of Piping Systems 549
Types of Heat-Tracing Systems 550
Stream Tracing Systems 550
Electric Tracing 551
Storage of Liquids 552
Atmospheric Tanks 552
Elevated Tanks 552
Open Tanks 552
Fixed Roof Tanks 552
Floating Roof Tanks 552
Pressure Tanks 553
Bibliography 553
Contents xiii
Part IV Auxiliary Components and Accessories 555
13 Bearings and Seals 557
Bearings 557
Rolling Bearings 557
Journal Bearings 563
Bearing Design Principles 565
Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings 569
Bearing Materials 572
Bearing and Shaft Instabilities 573
Thrust Bearings 573
Factors Affecting Thrust-Bearing Design 577
Thrust-Bearing Power Loss 578
Seals 578
Non-contacting Seals 579
Labyrinth Seals 579
Ring (Bushing) Seals 583
Mechanical (Face) Seals 585
Mechanical Seal Selection and Application 589
Product 590
Additional Product Considerations 592
Seal Environment 592
Seal Arrangement Considerations 593
Equipment 593
Secondary Packing 593
Seal-Face Combinations 593
Seal Gland Plate 593
Main Seal Body 594
Seal Systems 594
Associated Oil System 595
Dry Gas Seals 596
Tandem Dry Gas Seals 599
Tandem Dry Gas Seal with Labyrinth 599
Double Gas Seals 600
Operating Range of Dry Gas Seals 600
Dry Gas Seal Materials 601
Dry Gas Seal Systems 601
Dry Gas Seal Degradation 601
Bibliography 603
14 Gears 605
Gear Types 607
Factors Affecting Gear Design 608
Pressure Angle 609
Helix Angle 611
xiv Contents
Tooth Hardness 612
Scuffing 613
Gear Accuracy 613
Types of Bearings 614
Service Factor 614
Gear Housings 615
Lubrication 615
Manufacturing Processes 616
Hobbing 616
Hobbing and Shaving 616
Hobbing and Lapping 618
Grinding 618
Gear Rating 619
Gear Noise 619
Installation and Initial Operation 620
Gear Failures 622
Acknowledgement 624
Bibliography 625
Part V Installation Operation and Maintenance 627
15 Lubrication 629
Basic Oil System 629
Lubrication Oil System 629
Seal Oil System 634
Lubrication Management Program 636
Lubricant Selection 637
Oil Contamination 637
Filter Selection 638
Cleaning and Flushing 640
Oil Sampling and Testing 641
Oil Analysis Tests 641
Test Profiles 646
Gearboxes 646
Clean Oil Systems 647
Coupling Lubrication 648
Bibliography 649
16 Spectrum Analysis 651
Vibration Measurement 656
Displacement Transducers 657
Velocity Transducers 657
Acceleration Transducers 658
Dynamic Pressure Transducers 658
Contents xv
Taping Data 659
Interpretation of Vibration Spectra 660
Subsynchronous Vibration Analysis Using RTA 664
Synchronous and Harmonic Spectra 668
Bibliography 672
17 Balancing 675
Rotor Imbalance 675
Balancing Procedures 680
Orbital Balancing 681
Modal Balancing 682
Multiplane Balancing (Influence Coefficient Method) 683
Application of Balancing Techniques 686
User’s Guide for Multiplane Balancing 688
Bibliography 690
18 Couplings and Alignment 693
Gear Couplings 695
Oil-Filled Couplings 698
Grease-Packed Couplings 699
Continuously Lubricated Couplings 699
Gear Coupling Failure Modes 700
Metal Diaphragm Couplings 701
Metal Disc Couplings 704
Turbomachinery Uprates 705
Curvic Couplings 709
Shaft Alignment 710
The Shaft Alignment Procedure 711
Bibliography 718
19 Control Systems and Instrumentation 721
Control Systems 721
Start-up Sequence 728
Condition Monitoring Systems 730
Requirements for an Effective Diagnostic System 732
Monitoring Software 733
Implementation of a Condition Monitoring System 735
Plant Power Optimization 736
Online Optimization Process 737
Life Cycle Costs 739
Diagnostic System Components and Functions 741
Data Inputs 741
Instrumentation Requirements 741
Typical Instrumentation (Minimum Requirements for Each Machine) 742
Desirable Instrumentation (Optional) 742
xvi Contents
Criteria for the Collection of Aerothermal Data 742
Pressure Drop in Filter System 745
Temperature and Pressure Measurement for Compressors
and Turbines 745
Temperature Measurement 746
Thermocouples 746
Resistive Thermal Detectors 747
Pyrometers 747
Pressure Measurement 748
Vibration Measurement 748
Vibration Instrumentation Selection 750
Selection of Systems for Analyses of Vibration Data 750
Auxiliary System Monitoring 751
Fuel System 751
Torque Measurement 752
Baseline for Machinery 752
Data Trending 754
The Gas Turbine 756
Identification of Losses 759
Compressor Aerothermal Characteristics and Compressor Surge 759
Failure Diagnostics 760
Compressor Analysis 760
Combustor Analysis 761
Turbine Analysis 762
Turbine Efficiency 764
Mechanical Problem Diagnostics 765
Data Retrieval 767
Summary 767
Bibliography 768
20 Gas Turbine Performance Test 769
Introduction 769
Performance Codes 770
Flow Straighteners 771
Pressure Measurement 771
Temperature Measurement 774
Flow Measurement 775
Gas Turbine Test 777
Gas Turbine 778
Air Inlet Filter Module 779
Compressor Module 779
Combustor Module 780
Expander Module 781
Life Cycle Consideration of Various Critical Hot Section Components 782
Performance Curves 782
Contents xvii
Performance Computations 782
General Governing Equations 783
Gas Turbine Performance Calculation 786
Gas Turbine Performance Calculations 792
Correction Factors for Gas Turbines 793
Vibration Measurement 796
Rotor Dynamics 796
Vibration Measurements 796
Emission Measurements 797
Emissions 797
Plant Losses 800
Bibliography 802
21 Maintenance Techniques 803
Philosophy of Maintenance 803
Maximization of Equipment Efficiency and Effectiveness 805
Organization Structures for a Performance-Based Total Productive
Maintenance Program 807
Implementation of a Performance-Based Total Productive
Maintenance 808
Maintenance Department Requirements 810
Training of Personnel 810
I. Type of Personnel 810
II. Types of Training 811
Tools and Shop Equipment 814
Spare Parts Inventory 814
Condition and Life Assessment 815
Availability and Reliability 815
Redesign for Higher Machinery Reliability 817
Gas Turbine Start-up 819
Redesign for Higher Machinery Reliability 821
Advanced Gas Turbines 821
Axial-Flow Compressor 822
Dry Low NOx Combustors 823
Axial-Flow Turbine 826
Maintenance Scheduling 827
Maintenance Communications 829
Inspection 831
Long-Term Service Agreements 833
Borescope Inspection 835
Maintenance of Gas Turbine Components 841
Compressors 843
Compressor Cleaning 850
Compressor Water Wash 851
Different Wash Systems 853
xviii Contents
On-Line Wash Cleaning System 853
Off-Line Crank Wash Cleaning System 853
On-Line and Off-Line Water Wash Fluids 856
Off-Line Crank Wash Procedure 857
Combustors 858
Turbines 861
Rejuvenation of Used Turbine Blades 866
Rotor Dynamic System Characteristics 869
Bearing Maintenance 870
Clearance Checks 877
Thrust-Bearing Failure 877
Coupling Maintenance 880
Repair and Rehabilitation of Turbomachinery Foundations 880
Installation Defects 881
Increasing Mass and Rigidity 882
Bibliography 883
22 Case Histories 885
Axial-Flow Compressors 886
Combustion Systems 897
Transition Piece 902
Axial-Flow Turbines 902
Appendix: Equivalent Units 923
Index